PROGRESS-REPORT-4 Effect of Important Variables
The previous Progress Reports can be read at www.LENRexplained.com. The various novel features of the calorimeter are explored in this Progress Report.
These features included measurement of OCV, loading behavior, the effect of temperature on the various behaviors, and the behavior of volume expansion resulting from repeated loading and deloading.
A number of Pd-Ag compositions have been made and subjected to treatments and measurements considered important to this study. These treatments include measurement of the sample volume during various stages in its treatment and subjecting the sample to various methods to improve its reaction with hydrogen.
The relationship between each of these variables and production of excess energy will be established in order to improve the reproducibility of producing this extra energy. The initial results from the study of each of these variables are described and discussed below.
1. Expansion behavior
As described previously(1, 2), the guide used to design this research identifies expansion of the material as result of reaction with hydrogen as being an important variable for excess power production. Because the excess power requires deuterium to be present, the sample must first react with deuterium. This reaction causes the material to expand and change shape by more than would be expected based on the known increase in lattice parameter of the beta phase. This additional volume is retained when the hydrogen isotope is removed. This shape change is proposed to produce uneven stress and formation of cracks, which allow a nuclear process to take place in the gaps when the gap is exactly right. Consequently, the amount of hydrogen able to react and the resulting uneven expansion is important to know and control.
The expansion is measured using micrometers after various treatments have been applied. An example of this behavior using pure palladium is summarized in Table 1. ….
Continue to read PROGRESS-REPORT-4
1. E. K. Storms, The explanation of low energy nuclear reaction. (Infinite Energy Press, Concord, NH, 2014), pp. 365 pages, (updated e-version available at Amazon.com).
2. E. K. Storms, A Theory of LENR Based on Crack Formation. Infinite Energy 19, 24-27 (2013).